The use of a fabric ‘wing’ shaped device to harness the wind, which led to the advent of wingfoiling, dates back to 1981, well before the development of the hydrofoil into its current design used to connect to boards. It was created by aeronautical engineer Jim Drake, credited with creating the world's first commercially viable Windsurfer® board, and Uli Stanciu, who jointly patented the world's first wing.

From 2011 to 2018, marked by collaborative efforts and diverse expertise, 'wingfoiling', also termed ‘winging’, emerged as a stand-alone sport. This coincided with pioneering work to develop hydrofoils for boards and wings. Ken Winner, Peter Cabrinha, Alex Aguera, and Robbie Naish, all with windsurfing and kiteboarding backgrounds, played instrumental roles in pioneering wingfoiling. They incorporated advanced fabrication techniques and lessons learned from kiteboarding, paving the way for the sport of winging. 2019 would be the seminal year to release commercially available inflatable wings.


The wingfoil wing is a hand-held, wing-shaped fabric device used to harness the wind to propel various water and land-based board sports. Confusingly, the hydrofoil connected to the board being ridden, though consisting of front and rear foils, are often erroneously termed 'wings'. For clarity, the wing is what you hold to power the board, and the foil is the device under the water which provides lift and hydrofoiling.


Wingfoiling can be enjoyed in various wind and wave conditions. It’s versatile enough for riders of all levels and launching and landing is easier and safer than kiteboarding, opening up a wider variety of riding locations. It is also easier to learn than windsurfing or kiteboarding. The sport’s accessibility, ease of learning, and relatively low cost made it an attractive option for many people looking to try something new. Wingfoiling has significantly grown the watersports community and expanded places to ride.


Innovative thinking has led to novel ways to use a wingfoiling wing to power a surfboard, kite-board, skateboard, snowboard, snow skis, ice skates and inline skates.


The shape and size of a wingfoiling wing directly influence its performance characteristics.

• HIGH-ASPECT WINGFOIL WING: Wingfoiling wings with a higher aspect ratio (longer; 'wing tip to wing tip' and narrower; 'front apex of the leading edge to the rear strut') generate more lift and increased top-end speed. They are ideal for experienced riders and deliver high-potential speed and manoeuvrability.

• LOW-ASPECT WINGFOIL WING: Wings with a lower aspect ratio (shorter -'wing tip to wing tip' and wider - 'front apex of the leading edge to the rear strut' provide more stability, making them well-suited for beginners or riders focused on free-riding and cruising as found on our current range of wings.

For beginners, a wingfoiling wing with a larger surface area offers enhanced stability and easier control. The increased surface area provides more lift, making getting up on the foil easier and maintaining balance during manoeuvres when learning.


Kite development played an important role in wing development. Made from lightweight kite fabric, the wing is stretched out by inflatable tubes comprising the leading edge and the fuselage strut, except wings that feature a ‘boom’, where the inflatable fuselage strut is sometimes omitted.


Wingfoiling wings are rated in terms of their total surface area, usually square meters. The smallest can be as small as 2.0m up to the largest, nearing 9.0m. It’s essential to have the right-sized wing to develop your wing-riding progression, no matter your ability level.

Larger wings are best for light winds and heavier riders to harness more wind.

Smaller wings can be used in stronger winds and for lighter riders in lower winds. Ideally, you want to use the smallest wing possible to get you up and running for ease of use, manageability and manoeuvrability.


Your body weight, pre-existing skills (e.g., windsurfing, kiteboarding), or winging ability will determine each session's ideal wing surface area.

Beginner: 40-60kg 3.5m/12-18 knots, 3.0m 18-25knots, 2.6m 25knots+
Beginner: 60-70kg 4.5m/12-18 knots, 4.0m 18-25knots, 3.0m 25knots+
Beginner: 70-80kg 4.5m/12-18 knots, 4.0m 18-25knots, 3.5m 25knots+
Beginner: 80-90kg 5.0m/12-18 knots, 4.5m 18-25knots, 4.0m 25knots+
Beginner: 90-100kg 6.0m/12-18 knots, 4.5m 18-25knots, 4.0m 25knots+
Beginner: 100kg+ 6.0m/12-18 knots, 5.0m 18-25knots, 5.0m 25knots+

Intermediate/Advanced: 40-60kg 3.0m/12-18 knots, 2.6m 18-25knots, 2.6m 25knots+
Intermediate/Advanced: 60-70kg 4.0m/12-18 knots, 3.0m 18-25knots, 3.0m 25knots+
Intermediate/Advanced: 70-80kg 4.5m/12-18 knots, 4.5m 18-25knots, 3.5m 25knots+
Intermediate/Advanced: 80-90kg 4.5m/12-18 knots, 4.0m 18-25knots, 4.0m 25knots+
Intermediate/Advanced: 90-100kg 5.0m/12-18 knots, 4.5m 18-25knots, 4.5m 25knots+
Intermediate/Advanced: 100kg+ 6.0m/12-18 knots, 5.0m 18-25knots, 5.0m 25knots+

Consider also 6.5m sizes

Summary for Beginners:
Choose one size, usually a wing between 4.5m and 5m, depending on your body mass. If you are 70kg and under, consider the smaller 4.5m and under; if you are over 70kg, go with the 5m and above.

Avoid winds that are too light, as you need the wind's strength to get you going. Ideally, winds of 15 and 18 knots are ideal for these sizes relative to your weight.

If you live with light winds, consider increasing your wing size to ensure enough power.


Canopy: The wingfoil wing's primary surface area is fabricated from individual panels.
Leading Edge: The inflated front edge of the wingfoiling wing.
Trailing Edge: The trailing edge of the canopy.
Fuselage Strut: The inflatable central strut of the wingfoiling wing onto which handles attach.
(‘Boomed’ wings do not have this section)
Wing Tip: The far outer tips of the wingfoiling wing.
Valve: Either a single or dual valve to inflate the tubes using a hand pump.
Leash Attachment Loop: Usually at the front of the windfoiling wing on the leading edge.
Window: On some models, not all. Higher-performing wingfoiling wings often omit windows.
Primary Handles: For hand placement and control.
Neutral Handle: Central to the leading edge for flying the wingfoiling wing in a neutral position.
Battens: Sometimes added to the trailing edge to reduce flutter.


The placement and design of handles on a wingfoiling wing impact usability and manoeuvrability. Handles must be strategically positioned for ease of grip and intuitive control, allowing riders to adjust their hand positioning comfortably during manoeuvres and transitions.

Learning to use a wing with multiple handle options, including central and wingtip handles, can be advantageous. These handle options provide versatility for hand positioning and ensure optimal control during different riding scenarios.

• WEBBED HANDLES: Wingfoiling wings with webbing material grab handles are a common, economical, functional design. Handles make the wingfoiling wing lighter, more compact, and easier to manoeuvre, all ideal during the learning phases. Typically, riders find handles more comfortable over longer periods, as found on our Sphinx and Classic range of wings.

• MOULDED HANDLES: Wings with moulded control handles offer improved sensitivity and control. They provide a firm and ergonomic grip for direct steering and extended sessions. The rigid handles on our Skywave wings make you feel 'at one' with the wing and give you maximum performance.

• BOOMS: Windfoiling wings with a boom. It is a patented concept which some windsurfers appreciate.

• HYBRIDS: Windfoiliing wings with boom/handle combinations. Short front boom, handles in the rear section.


(Leading Edge and Fuselage Strut)

Dacron® (Polyester)
The industry standard is a woven polyester weave with a melamine resin used to give it strength and rigidity. It weighs around 160-170 gsm (grams per square meter ). Polyester fibres are woven into a cloth and stabilised the resin. This resin makes the fabric water-resistant and less porous to air and helps to control bias elongation, the stretch you get when you pull on a cloth at a 45º angle to the thread orientation.

Penta TX
At 144 gm2, Penta TX is lighter than Dacron, 20% lighter than Dacron®, but used only by proprietary users.

Aluula is the lightest weight per square meter fabric at around 85 gm2. Instead of polyester, the weave is *Dyneema™ line, sandwiched within a proprietary resin, making Aluula the lightest material on the market. However, it's difficult to work with and requires much more stitching to hold that fabric in place, adding weight. Aluula is 50% lighter weight than Dacron®.

*Dyneema™: On a weight-for-weight basis, Dyneema™ is 15 times stronger than steel wire. Lightweight: Size for size, a rope made with Dyneema™ is eight times lighter than steel wire rope. Water resistant: Dyneema™ is hydrophobic and does not absorb water, so it remains light when working in wet conditions.

Ho'okipa weighs around 120 gm2 and is a Dyneema™ weave fabric. It has a tighter weave than Aluula and less resin in the finishing process. It is not a sandwich resin construction like Aluula. The resin is just on the inside layer of the material, and the Dyneema™ is on the outside, making it more abrasion-resistant than Aluula. It's user-friendly to work with and easier to repair. Ho'okipa is 30% lighter than Dacron®. One of the primary benefits of Ho’okipa is when used for the inflatable leading edge and fuselage strut, a high amount of air pressure can be used, thereby making the canopy stiffer, more responsive and less likely to implode before jumping on landings and when pumping with a higher response rate. We have used this on our Skywave range of wings.

3m - 20-40 knots 11psi
4m - 16-32 knots 10psi
5m - 12-26 knots 10psi
6m - 9-22 knots 9psi

Dacron®, by comparison, inflates 6-7 psi with a maximum of 8 psi.
Leading edges are becoming thinner, and psi ratings are increasing.

N-Weave is around 102 gm2 and comes between Aluula and Ho'okipa. It uses Dyneema™ fabric with a resin sandwich. N-Weave is 40% lighter than Dacron and restricted to certain brands.


• As the end user, you must decide what you are looking for performance-wise and how much you will spend above traditional Dacron® to get that.
• You get a stiffer platform and a weight reduction with all these newer fabrics.
• If you're looking to do light wind foiling, you're looking for the lightest thing you can keep in the air in the least amount of wind possible.



Woven, lightweight Dacron (polyester) rip-stop fabrics approximating 50-55 gsm are generally used for the canopy for wing fabrication. This is similar to spinnaker cloth, which is lightweight, hydrophobic, and UV resistant, made possible by the resin additive.

80% of a wing’s weight comes from the internal bladder, leading edge and fuselage strut.

Dacron® Is considered a highly advanced fabric. Because of its characteristics, including being super lightweight, further weight reduction in this area is less important moving forward than performance merits.


Many argue a wing should have a window for added visibility and safety. Yet, there’s nothing to suggest this is the case, as a window can be a distraction, rarely provides 20:20 vision and adds weight to the canopy.

For the most part, you must maintain all-around awareness of those around you, including looking under the wing and checking before making any turns.

The omission of a window ensures optimum aerodynamics, improves performance, reduces distraction for the rider, and a lighter overall wing, lessening fatigue in lighter winds.

While a window may increase visibility while riding in brief moments, many windows fail to be positioned within your line of sight and are ‘token’ offerings at best. Even if you have a window, you cannot and should not rely upon it as it tends to distract you when you should learn to look under and around the wing and be aware of your surroundings. 


Wingfoiling wing canopy panels are strategically cut and stitched to account for the various tensions and stresses on the overall canopy surface area. This is critical to maintaining the canopy shape and the speed at which it reforms after deformation. Deformation leads to power loss when the canopy 'implodes' inwards. Mistral has adopted radial cut panels used on spinnaker sails to spread the stress in a unidirectional spread to work with the torsional forces to better maintain canopy shape during pumping, take-offs, landings, and high gusts.


Canopy tension refers to the tightness or looseness of a wing's fabric or canopy.

• Canopy tension is essential to attain a well-balanced, efficient wingfoiling experience. If the canopy is too loose, the wing can lose shape, reducing power and control.

• Excessive tension can hinder the wing's ability to deform and adapt to changing wind conditions.

For beginners, a wing with moderate canopy tension balances stability and manoeuvrability, providing sufficient power, responsiveness, and ease of handling so riders can focus on developing skills without being overpowered or compromised by the canopy's instability.


The dihedral angle refers to the wingtips of the wingfoiling wing, depending on their upward or downward angle relative to the wing's horizontal line from the leading edge to the middle of the trailing edge extremity.

A wingfoiling wing with a pronounced angulated dihedral angle creates added stability during gusty, turbulent wind conditions. This design feature helps prevent the wing from stalling or collapsing, making it ideal for beginners still developing wing-handling skills. Our current wingfoiling wings lean towards this design.

A wingfoiling wing with a reduced dihedral angle or even anhedral (downward angle) offers increased manoeuvrability and responsiveness. Experienced riders who desire quick turns, high-performance carving, or advanced freestyle manoeuvres prefer wings with minimal dihedral angles.


This relates to the relative width of the wingfoiling wing, wing tip to wing tip (limited by human factors of height and manageability) in relation to the length of the fuselage and the relative width of the wing tips. This creates either an angulated bat wing-shaped high-aspect type wing or a fatter, square wing shape, considered low aspect. Aspect ratios of wingfoiling wings are wholly determined by this ratio. Low-aspect wings are usually the result of needing to create large surface areas.